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Liquid Rocket Engine Nozzles
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Rocketdyne, Rockwell International, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies, and the NASA Lewis Research Center

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Liquid Rocket Engine Nozzles
.
Rocketdyne, Rockwell International, Aerojet, Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies, and the NASA Lewis Research Center


A well-designed nozzle can add 50-percent or more thrust to a rocket engine (this important contribution is what rocket scientists call the "thrust coefficient" or "Cf").  The nozzle has a significant influence on the overall engine performance and represents a large fraction of the engine structure.  And since the nozzle is where gas pressures, velocities, and temperatures are highest, the material and design requirements are challenging.

The nozzle configuration best suited to a particular application depends on a variety of factors, including the altitudes in which the nozzle will be used, and limitations on development time or funding.  This textbook describes in detail the techniques for developing nozzle contours that strike the best compromise between performance and non-performance consideration (e.g., testing expense or cooling method), offering "cut-and-try" optimizations.

This NASA textbook covers nozzle design from upstream of the throat to the nozzle exit for both bell and annular (or plug) nozzles.  All important aspects of the methods used to create nozzle wall shapes are covered, for maximum-performance shapes, and for nozzle contours based on criteria other than performance.  Covers maximizing expansion area ratio to obtain high vacuum performance from an upper-stage engine and still be able to ground test the engine without the added expense of using an altitude facility.

Includes abundant data and design information for both small and large engines.  Describes the milled axial coolant channels used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME).  Advanced designs and configurations (short bell nozzles, and annular nozzles such as expansion-deflection and aerospike) are also discussed.  These types of nozzles provide the same performance as the bell but from a markedly smaller package.

Chapters about structure and hydraulics covers problem areas of regenerative cooled tube-wall nozzles and extensions.  This section also treats nozzle extensions cooled by turbine exhaust gas, ablation-cooled extensions, and radiation-cooled extensions.  There's also information for the design of:

This important book describes the techniques that best enable the designer to develop the nozzle structure as simply as possible, and at the lowest cost consistent with minimum weight and specified performance.


Samples of the 87 Illustrations
(reduced in size and resolution for originals)

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                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.If you need more details about this book,
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CONTENTS

NOZZLE CONFIGURATION

  • Throat Geometry
  • Expansion Geometry
    • Bell Nozzle
      • Optimum Contour
      • Nonoptimum Contour
      • Overexpanded Nozzle
      • Nozzle Extension
      • Small Nozzle
    • Plug Nozzle
      • Base Design
      • Overexpanded Nozzle
  • Nozzle Contour Tolerances
NOZZLE STRUCTURE
  • Regeneratively Cooled Nozzles and Extensions
    • Intermittent Retaining Bands
    • Structural Adequacy
    • Tube-Bundle Rigidity
    • Tube Support
  • Tube Splice Joints
  • Film-Cooled Extensions
    • Slots
    • Attachment-Area Geometry
    • Extension Structure
  • Ablation-Cooled Extensions
  • Radiation-Cooled Extensions
  • Circumferential Manifolds
    • Manifold Hydraulics
    • Vanes, Splitters, Dams, and Structural Supports
      • Turning Vanes
      • Flow Splitters
      • Dams
    • Hot-Gas Manifold
    • Coolant-Return Manifold
  • Nozzle Attachments
    • Attachment Techniques
    • Welding
    • Extension Joint for Large Chambers
  • Instrumentation Provisions
    • Temperature Measurement
      • Thermocouples
      • Braze Patches
    • Pressure Measurement
      • Installation
      • Measurement
    • Stress (Strain) Measurement
TESTING
  • Full-Scale Testing
    • Ground Testing
    • Performance Evaluation
  • Model Testing
    • Model Size
    • Properties of Test GAs
    • Flowfield Observation
GLOSSARY
CONVERSION OF US CUSTOMARY UNITS TO SI UNITS
REFERENCES


An exceptional design resource for the "amateur" experimental rocket scientist and engineer.  Printed directly from a NASA digital document file, with a high-resolution laser printer on high-quality, bright-white, acid-free paper and quality bound for years of reference use.  123 pages, 87 illustrations and graphics, large and easy-to-read 11" x 8-1/2" size.  $24.95

 
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