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Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors
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Rocketdyne, Rockwell International, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, United Technologies, Aerojet-General, and the NASA Lewis Research Center 

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Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors
.
Rocketdyne, Rockwell International, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft, United Technologies, Aerojet-General, and the NASA Lewis Research Center 


The liquid rocket engine injector atomizes and mixes the fuel with the oxidizer to produce efficient and stable combustion.  Injectors usually take the form of a perforated disk at the head of the combustion chamber, and range from a few inches to more than three feet in diameter.

From the early experiments of Dr. Robert Goddard and Werner von Braun, the design of injectors has been mainly an art that depended for success on the experience and intuition of the design team.  This approach led to expensive, time-consuming development programs and often to marginal final designs.

More recently, injector design has been improved by the use of computer programs that characterize the combustion field, and by cold-flow techniques that are used ot determine the mass, mixture-ratio, and dropsize distribution characteristics.  This text provides good information about critical problems that may arise during injector development, and indicates approaches that lead to successful design.

This comprehensive book is a systematic guide for the working designer.  It covers bipropellant injector (with emphasis on liquid/liquid and liquid/gas injectors), plus useful material on monopropellant injectors and gas/gas systems.  Extensive data for hypergolic, cryogenic, and storable propellants.


CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

INJECTOR FLOW-SYSTEM GEOMETRY

  • Total element pattern
    • Element selection
      • Element types
      • Orifice diameter and diameter ratio
      • Impingement angle
      • Impingement distance
    • Element arrangement
      • Element distribution
      • Element orientation
    • Combustion stability considerations
  • Individual orifice geometry
    • Orifice inlet
    • Orifice bore
    • Orifice outlet
    • Orifice tolerances
  • Flow-system geometry upstream of the orifices
    • Ring grooves
    • Downcomers
    • Dome manifolds
    • Ring manifolds
    • Radial and transverse passages
    • General flow system upstream of the orifices
INJECTOR ASSEMBLY
  • General structure
    • Body materials
      • Corrosion resistance
      • Ductility
      • Flaws
    • Weld joints
    • Braze joints
    • Closeout plugs
    • Posts
    • Face and body rigidity
    • Structural supports and flow devices
    • Contamination control
    • Removal and handling provisions
  • Injector face
    • Face types
      • Ring injectors
      • Integral-face injectors
      • Porous-face injectors
    • Face materials
    • Face coatings
    • Face cooling
    • Interpropellant sealing
  • Baffles and acoustic absorbers
  • Auxiliary components
    • Instrumentation ports
    • Hypergolic ignition buttons
    • Contamination screens
    • Drain plugs
    • Seals

Discusses and reviews the wide variety of injectors employed in operation space vehicles, including:

Redstone, A-7
Jupiter
Thor, MB-3
Atlas, MA-5 booster
Atlas, MA-5 sustainer
Titan I, booster
Titan I, stage 2
Saturn 1B, H-1
Saturn 1C, F-1
Agena
Lance (XRL) booster and sustainer
Titan II, booster
Titan II, stage 2
Titan III, booster
Apollo SPS, lunar descent, lunar ascent
Saturn II and IVB
Centaur
SSME

Compares advantages and disadvantages for all the principal injector patterns:

  • Unlike doublet (1 on 1)
  • Unlike triplet (2 on 1)
  • Unlike quadlet (2 on 2)
  • Unlike pentad (4 on 1)
  • Concentric tube (with and without swirler)
  • Like doublet (1 on 1)
  • Showerhead
  • Variable area (pintle)
  • Splash plate

Includes the math equations and design formulae, hydraulic theory involved, and extensive geometry data.  A very useful book for the serious experimenter.

Sample Illustrations
(much smaller and lower in resolution than in the book)

If you need more details about this book,
                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.
If you need more details about this book,
                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.
If you need more details about this book,
                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.
If you need more details about this book,
                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.
If you need more details about this book,
                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.
If you need more details about this book,
                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.
If you need more details about this book,
                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.
If you need more details about this book,
                          send us a note by e-mail and we'll assist.If
                          you need more details about this book, send us
                          a note by e-mail and we'll assist.

Printed directly from a NASA digital document file, which itself is apparently 2nd or 3d generation, so some of the text is a bit difficult to read.  Printed with a high-resolution laser printer (we didn't photocopy it) on high-quality, bright-white, acid-free paper and quality bound for years of reference use.  131 pages, 74 illustrations, large and easy-to-read 11" x 8-1/2" size.  $24.95

 
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