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U.S. Department of Defense
Contractors' Safety Manual for Ammunition and Explosives
.
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology

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U.S. Department of Defense
Contractors' Safety Manual for Ammunition and Explosives
.
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology


The U.S. Department of Defense has prepared this comprehensive document to provide the precise and exact safety standards used by all Department of Defense operations and facilities, and by all private industry contractors.  Derived from the "DoD Ammunition and Explosives Safety Standards," this document is the basis for all government defense contracts involving rocket propellants, explosives, and ammunition.

This Manual provides "reasonable, standardized safety principles, methods, practices, requirements, and information" for contractual work or services involving ammunition and explosives.  The requirements of this Manual apply to contractors performing work or services on Department of Defense contracts, subcontracts, purchase orders, or other purchasing methods for ammunition or explosives. 

Includes the many mandatory requirements, as well as abundant "advisory" requirements.  Covers training programs and operation procedures to prevent ammunition, propellant, and explosives mishaps.  Explains in detail how mishap investigations are conducted.  Complete information about storage buildings and handling equipment. 

Contains abundant information that's useful also to the "amateur" experimental scientist, not to mention people who work with fireworks.  Includes everything you need to know about operational shields and protective clothing, with many details about conductive footwear ("grounders").

New chapters about liquid rocket propellant safety, including the new hazard groups.  Discusses safety on range launch pads, static test stands, ready storage areas, cold-flow test operations, bulk storage areas, pipelines, and so forth.  Provides detailed Quantity-Distance Tables for all kinds of liquid propellants.

Covers the storage and handling of these fuels and oxidizers:

  • Alcohols
  • Anhydrous ammonia
  • Aniline
  • Hydrocarbon fuels (JP-4, JP-5, RP-1)
  • Monopropellant NOS-58-6
  • Nitrogen tetroxide
  • Otto fuel II
  • Red fuming nitric acid
  • Bromine pentafluoride
  • Chlorine trifluoride
  • Hydrogen peroxide (52+%)
  • Liquid fluorine
  • Liquid oxygen
  • Perchloryl fluoride
  • Oxygen difluoride
  • Ozone difluoride
  • Ethylene Oxide
  • Hydrazine
  • Hydrazine-UDMH mixtures
  • Liquid hydrogen
  • Mixed amine fuels
  • Monomethylhydrazine
  • Pentaborane
  • Triethyl boron
  • Nitromethane
  • UDMH
  • Tetranitromethane
Many pages of detailed explosives classifications, showing exactly which are considered compatible, and how each are classified.  Tells how explosives are classified for hazards, and explains each class.

Many detailed "Tables of Distance" for inhabited buildings, public traffic routes, intermagazine factors, fragment hazards, and so forth for various types of magazines.  Includes drawings for design and alignment of magazines of various types, along with extensive details about barricades and earth-covered magazines.  Even has information about separation of explosives anchorages, separation distances of ship unites, airfields, heliports, seadromes, pier and wharf facilities.

Includes detailed information about:

  • Operational shields and personal protective equipment
  • Special clothing and conductive footwear
  • Operational explosives containers
  • Weighing and drying of raw materials
  • Mixing and blending
  • Pressing, extruding, and pelleting
  • Assembly operations
  • Granulation, grinding, and screening
  • Transporting
  • Machining of pyrotechnic material
  • Collection of pyrotechnic wastes
  • Cleaning of pyrotechnic processing equipment
  • Standard operating procedures (SOPs)
  • Housekeeping in hazardous areas
  • Procedure before electrical storms
  • Maintenance and repairs to equipment and buildings
  • Safety-hand tools
  • Handling and storing rockets and rocket motors
  • Fire plans
  • Portable fire extinguishers
  • Hazards in fighting fires involving liquid propellants, ammunition, and explosives
  • Automatic sprinkler and deluge systems
  • Lightning protection
  • Static electricity and grounding
  • Properties of explosives
  • Handling low-energy initiators
  • Laboratory operations
  • Electrical testing of ammunition and ammunition components
  • Heat-conditioning of explosives and ammunition
  • Spray painting
  • Munitions loading
  •  Personnel shelters
  • Testing of ammunition or devices for small arms
  • Velocity and pressure tests
  • Primer drop tests
  • Casting and curing propellants
  • Inspection of pyrotechnic, propellant, and explosives mixers
  • Permissible exposures to blast overpressure
  • Specific siting requirements
  • Storage compatibility groups
  • Explosives hazard classification procedures
  • Hazard classes and class divisions
  • Airfields, pier, and wharf facilities


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword
Table of Contents 
Figures
Tables
References
Definitions
Glossary of Acronyms

CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION 

    C1.1.  Purpose
    C1.2.  Applicability
    C1.3.  Mandatory and Advisory Requirements
    C1.4.  Responsibilities
    C1.5.  Compliance with Mandatory Requirements25
    C1.6.  Site and Construction Plans
    C1.7.  Pre-award Safety Survey
    C1.8.  Pre-operational Survey 

CHAPTER 2 - MISHAP INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING 

    C2.1.  General
    C2.2.  Reporting Criteria
    C2.3.  Mishap Scene
    C2.4.  Telephone Report
    C2.5.  Written Report
    C2.6.  On-site Government Assistance
    C2.7.  Technical Mishap Investigation and Report 

CHAPTER 3 - SAFE PRACTICES 

    C3.1.  General
    C3.2.  Personnel and Materials Limits
    C3.3.  Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
    C3.4.  Storage in Operating Buildings
    C3.5.  Housekeeping in Hazardous Areas
    C3.6.  Explosives Waste in Operating Areas
    C3.7.  Procedure Before Electrical Storms
    C3.8.  Explosives in Process During Shutdown
    C3.9.  Maintenance and Repairs to Equipment and Buildings
    C3.10.  Safety-hand Tools
    C3.11.  Operational Shields
    C3.12.  Special Clothing
    C3.13.  Conductive Footwear
    C3.14.  Materials Handling Equipment
    C3.15.  Parking of Privately Owned Vehicles
    C3.16.  Prohibited Articles in Hazardous Areas
    C3.17.  Photographic Materials in Hazardous Areas
    C3.18.  Operational Explosives Containers
    C3.19.  Intraplant Rail Transportation
    C3.20.  Intraplant Motor Vehicle Transportation
    C3.21.  Inspection of Pyrotechnic, Propellant and Explosive Mixers

CHAPTER 4 - PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION OF Q/D, STANDARD EXPLOSIVES FACILITIES, AND SITING REQUIREMENTS

    C4.1.  General
    C4.2.  Quantity-distance (Q-D)
    C4.3.  Establishment of Quantity of Explosives and Distances
    C4.4.  Permissible Exposures to Blast Overpressure
    C4.5.  Ammunition and Explosives Facilities
    C4.6.  Specific Siting Requirements 

CHAPTER 5 - STORAGE COMPATIBILITY SYSTEM 

    C5.1.  General
    C5.2.  Compatibility Groups (CGs)
    C5.3.  Explosives Hazard Classification Procedures 

CHAPTER 6 - HAZARD CLASSIFICATION AND QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D) CRITERIA 

    C6.1.  General
    C6.2.  Hazard Classes and Class Divisions
    C6.3.  Hazard Division 1.1 - Mass Detonating
    C6.4.  Application of Intermagazine Distances for Hazard Division 1.1 Only
    C6.5.  Hazard Division 1.2 - Nonmass-denotating, Fragment-producing
    C6.6.  Hazard Division 1.3. - Mass Fire
    C6.7.  Hazard Division 1.4 - Moderate Fire, No Blast
    C6.8.  Hazard Division 1.5 and 1.6
    C6.9.  Airfields
    C6.10.  Pier and Wharf Facilities 

CHAPTER 7 - LIQUID PROPELLANTS REQUIREMENTS

    C7.1.  Application
    C7.2.  Determination of Propellant Quantity
    C7.3.  Measurement of Separation Distances
    C7.4.  Q-D Considerations
    C7.5.  Hazard Grouping
    C7.6.  Hazards
    C7.7.  Incompatible Storage
    C7.8.  Compatible Storage 

CHAPTER 8 - MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSING PYROTECHNICS

    C8.1.  General
    C8.2.  Machinery, Equipment, and Facilities
    C8.3.  Weighing of Raw Materials
    C8.4.  Drying of Materials
    C8.5.  Mixing and Blending
    C8.6.  Pressing, Extruding, and Pelleting
    C8.7.  Assembly Operations
    C8.8.  Granulation, Grinding, and Screening
    C8.9.  Transportation
    C8.10.  Rebowling
    C8.11.  Machining of Pyrotechnic Material
    C8.12.  Spill Control
    C8.13.  Collection of Pyrotechnic Wastes
    C8.14.  Cleaning of Pyrotechnic Processing Equipment
    C8.15.  Personal Protective Equipment
    C8.16.  Additional Controls
    C8.17.  Reworking Pyrotechnic Components
    C8.18.  Fire Protection 

CHAPTER 9 - STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVES AND AMMUNITION 

    C9.1.  General
    C9.2.  Storage Considerations
    C9.3.  Magazine Operational Regulations
    C9.4.  Stacking
    C9.5.  Loose Rounds, Damaged Containers
    C9.6.  Repairs to Magazines
    C9.7.  Open Storage (Outdoors)
    C9.10.  Storage of Bulk Initiating Explosives
    C9.11.  Rockets and Rocket Motors 

CHAPTER 10 - FIRE PROTECTION 

    C10.1.  General
    C10.2.  Fire Plan
    C10.3.  Firefighting Agreements
    C10.4.  Smoking
    C10.5.  Hot Work Permits
    C10.6.  Portable Fire Extinguishers
    C10.7.  Hazards in Fighting Fires Involving Ammunition and Explosives
    C10.8.  Automatic Sprinkler Systems
    C10.9.  Clearance Under Sprinklers
    C10.10.  Deluge Systems
    C10.11.  Hazards in Fighting Fires Involving Liquid Propellants
    C10.12.  Firebreaks 

CHAPTER 11 - PROCESS SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    C11.1.  General 

CHAPTER 12 - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR EXPLOSIVES FACILITIES

    C12.1.  General
    C12.2.  Requirements
    C12.3.  Requirements for Buildings
    C12.4.  Electrical Requirements
    C12.5.  Lightning Protection
    C12.6.  Static Electricity and Grounding 

CHAPTER 13 - SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIFIC EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS AND OPERATIONS

    C13.1.  General
    C13.2.  Properties of Explosives
    C13.3.  Handling Low-Energy Initiators
    C13.4.  Laboratory Operations
    C13.5.  Electrical Testing of Ammunition and Ammunition Components
    C13.6.  Heat-Conditioning of Explosives and Ammunition
    C13.7.  Spray Painting
    C13.8.  Drying Freshly Painted Loaded Ammunition
    C13.9.  Rework, Disassembly, Renovation, and Maintenance
    C13.10.  Munitions Loading and Associated Operations 

CHAPTER 14 - TESTING REQUIREMENTS  

    C14.1.  Program Requirements
    C14.2.  Operating Precautions
    C14.3.  Test Hazards
    C14.4.  Test Clearance
    C14.5.  Warning and Communication Systems
    C14.6.  Specific Items for Test
    C14.7.  Malfunctions
    C14.8.  Ammunition and Dud Recovery
    C14.9.  Personnel Shelters
    C14.10.  Testing of Ammunition or Devices for Small Arms
    C14.11.  Velocity and Pressure Tests
    C14.12.  Primer Drop Tests 

CHAPTER 15 - COLLECTION AND DESTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES 

    C15.1.  General
    C15.2.  Protection During Disposal Operations
    C15.3.  Collection of Ammunition and Explosives
    C15.4.  Destruction Sites
    C15.5.  Destruction by Burning
    C15.6.  Destruction by Detonation
    C15.7.  Destruction by Neutralization
    C15.8.  Destruction Chambers and Incinerators
    C15.9.  Support in Disposal of Waste 

CHAPTER 16 - MANUFACTURING AND PROCESSING PROPELLANTS

    C16.1.  General
    C16.2.  In-Process Hazards
    C16.3.  Quantity-Distance (Q-D) Requirements
    C16.4.  Separation of Operations and Buildings
    C16.5.  Equipment and Facilities
    C16.6.  In-Process Quantities and Storage
    C16.7.  Ingredients Processing
    C16.8.  Mixing
    C16.9.  Casting and Curing
    C16.10.  Extrusion Processes
    C16.11.  Propellant Loaded Items
    C16.12.  Disassembly 

CHAPTER 17 - HAZARDOUS COMPONENT SAFETY DATA STATEMENTS (HCSDS)

    C17.1.  General
    C17.2.  Purpose
    C17.3.  Explanation of Terms
    C17.4.  Application
    C17.5.  HCSDS Data Entries 

APPENDIX 1 - BIBLIOGRAPHY

FIGURES

Determination of Barricade Height (Level Terrain)
Determination of Barricade Height (Sloping Terrain)
Determination of Barricade Length
Effects of Magazine Orientation on Q-D
Application of Separation Distances for Ship and Barge Units
Misfire of Machine Guns, Rifles, Pistols, and Other Automatic Weapons
Misfire of Automatic Guns, 20mm and Larger
Misfire of Fixed or Semi-Fixed Ammunition
Misfire Under Possible Cook-Off Conditions
Misfire of Lever- (Trigger-) Fired Mortar Ammunition
Misfire of Fixed Firing Pin- or Lever-Type (Set for Drop Fire) Mortar Ammunition
Misfire of Rockets
Misfire of Separate Loading Ammunition
Emplacement of Bombproofs at Firing Points
Hazardous Component Safety Data Statement (HCSDS), DD Form 2357

TABLES

Storage Compatibility Mixing Chart
Hazard Division 1.1 - Inhabited Building Distance and Public Traffic Route Distances
Hazard Division 1.1 - Intraline Distances
Hazard Division 1.1 - Intraline Distances from Earth-Covered Magazines
Hazard Division 1.1 - Intermagazine Hazard Factors and Distances
Hazard Division 1.1 - Fragment Hazard (Primary/Secondary)
Hazard Division 1.1 - Minimum Fragment Protection Distances for Selected Items
Category (04), Hazard Division 1.2 - Nonmass-Detonating, Fragment-Producing
Category (08), Hazard Division 1.2 - Nonmass-Detonating, Fragment-Producing
Category (12), Hazard Division 1.2 - Nonmass-Detonating, Fragment-Producing 
Category (18), Hazard Division 1.2 - Nonmass-Detonating, Fragment-Producing 
Hazard Division 1.3 - Mass Fire
Hazard Division 1.4 - Moderate Fire, No Blast
Hazard Division 1.6N and EIDS Components
Quantity-Distance Criteria for Hazard Division 1.6 Ammunition
Hazard Division 1.1 - Q-D Standards for Airfields
Application of Ammunition and Explosives Safety Distances 
Q-D Separations for Pier and Wharf Facilities
Liquid Propellants Hazard and Compatibility Groupings
Quantity-Distance for Propellants
Liquid Propellant Explosives Equivalents
Distances for Separation of Propellant Static Testing, Launching, and Storage Sites From Other Facilities
Hazard Division 1.1 - Laboratories Q-D
Hazard Division 1.3 - Laboratories Q-D
Control and Personnel Protection Requirements for Certain Propellant Processing Operations


With many illustrations, technical drawings, and tables to support the text.

Sample Illustrations
(here greatly reduced in size and resolution)

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An excellent reference resource for the experimental and amateur rocket scientist, and especially important document if you're developing or implementing a safety program. 

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